Six pregnancy-related complications that increases a woman's risk of developing risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD)
Six pregnancy-related complications increase a woman's risk of developing risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and subsequently developing CVD, the American Heart Association (AHA) says in a new scientific statement.
They are hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, preterm delivery, gestational diabetes, small-for-gestational-age (SGA) delivery, placental abruption (abruptio placentae), and pregnancy loss.
A history of any of these adverse pregnancy outcomes should prompt "more vigorous primordial prevention of CVD risk factors and primary prevention of CVD," the writing group says.
"Adverse pregnancy outcomes are linked to women having hypertension, diabetes, abnormal cholesterol, and cardiovascular disease events, including heart attack and stroke, long after their pregnancies," Nisha I. Parikh, MD, MPH, chair of the writing group, said in a news release.
Adverse pregnancy outcomes can be a "powerful window" into CVD prevention "if women and their healthcare professionals harness the knowledge and use it for health improvement," said Parikh, associate professor of medicine in the Cardiovascular Division at the University of California San Francisco.
The statement was published online March 29 in the journal Circulation.
For the scientific statement, the writing group reviewed the latest scientific literature on adverse pregnancy outcomes and CVD risk.
The evidence in the literature linking adverse pregnancy outcomes to later CVD is "consistent over many years and confirmed in nearly every study we examined," Parikh said. Among their key findings:
• Gestational hypertension is associated with an increased risk of CVD later in life by 67% and the odds of stroke by 83%. Moderate and severe preeclampsia is associated with a more than twofold increase in the risk for CVD.
• Gestational diabetes is associated with an increase in the risk for CVD by 68% and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes after pregnancy by 10-fold.
• Preterm delivery (before 37 weeks) is associated with double the risk of developing CVD and is strongly associated with later heart disease, stroke and CVD.
• Placental abruption is associated with an 82% increased risk for CVD.
• Stillbirth is associated with about double the risk for CVD.
"This statement should inform future prevention guidelines in terms of the important factors to consider for determining women's risk for heart diseases and stroke," Parikh added.
The statement emphasizes the importance of recognizing these adverse pregnancy outcomes when evaluating CVD risk in women but notes that their value in reclassifying CVD risk may not be established.
It highlights the importance of adopting a heart-healthy diet and increasing physical activity among women with any of these pregnancy-related complications starting right after childbirth and continuing across the life span to decrease CVD risk.
Lactation and breastfeeding may lower a woman's later cardiometabolic risk, the writing group notes.
"Golden Year of Opportunity"
The statement highlights several opportunities to improve transition of care for women with adverse pregnancy outcomes and to implement strategies to reduce their long-term CVD risk.
One strategy is longer postpartum follow-up care, sometimes referred to as the "fourth trimester," to screen for CVD risk factors and provide CVD prevention counseling.
Another strategy involves improving the transfer of health information between ob/gyns and primary care physicians to eliminate inconsistencies in electronic health record documentation, which should improve patient care.
A third strategy is obtaining a short and targeted health history for each woman to confirm if she has any of the six pregnancy-related complications.
"If a woman has had any of these adverse pregnancy outcomes, consider close blood pressure monitoring, type 2 diabetes and lipid screening, and more aggressive risk factor modification and CVD prevention recommendations," Parikh advised.
"Our data lends support to the prior AHA recommendation that these important adverse pregnancy outcomes should be 'risk enhancers' to guide consideration for statin therapy aimed at CVD prevention in women," Parikh added.
In a commentary in the journal Circulation, Eliza C. Miller, MD, assistant professor of neurology at Columbia University, notes that pregnancy and the postpartum period are a critical time window in a woman’s life to identify CVD risk and improve a woman’s health trajectory.
"The so-called 'Golden Hour' for conditions such as sepsis and acute stroke refers to a critical time window for early recognition and treatment, when we can change a patient's clinical trajectory and prevent severe morbidity and mortality," writes Miller.
"Pregnancy and the postpartum period can be considered a 'Golden Year' in a woman's life, offering a rare opportunity for clinicians to identify young women at risk and work with them to improve their cardiovascular health trajectories," she notes.